1 May 1991 Refractive analog for modeling electrostatic ion lenses
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Electrostatic lenses are used extensively to control charged-particle beams. In a particular application to ion beam lithography for microelectronics fabrication, it was necessary to perform extensive calculations of the focal properties of cylindrically symmetric ion lenses. We have found that the imaging properties of cylindrical electrostatic ion lenses can be modeled accurately and efficiently by a series of refractive optical lenses. This is a key step toward the use of mature optical design tools for the design of systems that focus charged particles.
William C. Sweatt, Paul A. Miller, "Refractive analog for modeling electrostatic ion lenses," Optical Engineering 30(5), (1 May 1991). https://doi.org/10.1117/12.55839

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