In many applications involving storage and transmission of digital images, there is an explicit need for data compression. Subband coding has emerged as one suitable technique for satisfying this need. Initially, image subband coders were based on FIR filter banks employing the quadrature mirror filters (QMF) of Johnston. To reduce the complexity associated with these subband coders, we have introduced image subband coders based on two types of IIR filter banks. The first is a tree structured filter bank, whereas the other is a fully parallel construction. The computational complexity ofthese filter banks is examined. The computational complexity of the llR-based structures is significantly lower than their FIR counterparts. Furthermore, we introduce multiplier-free IIR filter banks realizing even further complexity reductions. For the bit-efficient representation of the subband signals of both our still image and video coders, we propose a simple scheme similar to the ones employed for DCT-based coding in the CCITT H.261 recommendation and the emerging ISO/JPEG standard. In demonstrating the performance of our coders, we present simulation results at less than 0.5 bits per pel for still image coding and 64 to 200 kbps for coding of video. The performance of our low-complexity IIR structures is found to be comparable to structures based on FIR filters.