Off-axis particle field holography and imaging with two types of cylindrical test sections without surface modification or index matching are described. One type is the liquid tunnel with circular inner and flat outer surfaces. The other case is that of cylindrical tubes such as biological ampules. The analytical description assumes that if the astigmatism-related longitudinal image position uncertainty is smaller than the nominal aperture-limited uncertainty, then imaging is possible. A general mathematical formulation is presented with examples of water tunnel, glycerine tunnel, and a typical biological ampule.
Chandra S. Vikram,
"Feasibility of off-axis particle field holography and imaging with portions of cylindrical test sections," Optical Engineering 31(1), (1 January 1992). https://doi.org/10.1117/12.56049