The principles of holographic storage and the reconstruction of short light pulses based on spatial spectral decomposition of radiation are described. This method may be designated as time-domain Fourier transform holography or spectral holography. Also described are various transformations of optical time signals based on holographic spectral filtering and dynamic interaction of spectral decomposition waves in nonlinear media. A system of methods of time signal processing based on spectral holography is proposed. Among these methods are shaping optical pulses, space-time conversions of signals, matched filtering, and recognition oftime optical signals. In addition, the possibilities for realizing time-division multiplexing of data streams using dynamic spectral holography are shown.