1 October 1993 Above-threshold multiphoton photoelectric effect of a gold surface
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A discrete structure consisting of peaks separated by hv photon energy was found experimentally in the photoelectron energy spectrum, when illuminating a gold target surface by relatively long light pulses (approximately nanoseconds) and using moderate (approximately 120 MW/cm2) intensity of Nd:glass lasers (λ = 1.06 μm). This structure can be considered as the above-threshold photoeffect (ATP) of metal surfaces. Its occurrence at surprisingly low laser intensities [which are four orders of magnitude less than the typical intensity range of the analogous above-threshold ionization (ATI) of atoms] was observed when the space charge was considerably eliminated.
Gyozo Farkas, Csaba Toth, Ambrus Kohazi-Kis, "Above-threshold multiphoton photoelectric effect of a gold surface," Optical Engineering 32(10), (1 October 1993). https://doi.org/10.1117/12.145288 . Submission:

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