1 December 1993 Phase contrast and differential interference contrast instrumentation and applications in cell, developmental, and marine biology
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Abstract
Progress in modern light microscopy by means of new optic design and optical contrast-enhancement techniques [phase contrast (PhC), differential interference contrast (DIC), polarization, reflection] in combination with inverted microscopes and simultaneously with epifluorescence is described. Today, PhC and DIC optics are available for high-resolution light microscopy up to a numerical aperture of 1.4 (oil) as well as for long working distance optics mainly combined with inverted microscopes. The application of DIC facilitates high-resolution optical microscopy of living cell components, which can be isolated by selective micropreparation for extended microscopic analysis. The high contrast and the use of the full numerical aperture of the DIC optics make it possible to obtain a series of optical sections through rather thick living specimens. Optoelectronic techniques such as video-enhanced contrast microscopy and laser scanning microscopy in combination with optical contrast-enhancement methods are expanding into a new dimension that overlaps the low range of electron microscopy magnification but includes the use of living material.
Heinz Gundlach, "Phase contrast and differential interference contrast instrumentation and applications in cell, developmental, and marine biology," Optical Engineering 32(12), (1 December 1993). https://doi.org/10.1117/12.142945
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