1 June 1993 Photonic in-phase/quadrature beam-forming network for phased array antenna applications
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Optical Engineering, 32(6), (1993). doi:10.1117/12.134049
A photonic in-phase/quadrature (I-Q) rf phase shifter utilizing the signals from two integrated optic Mach-Zehnder modulators has been tested. This system demonstrates the capability of 360-deg phase control, less than 1-deg rf errors at constant amplitude, and less than 0.5-deg errors over a 30-dB rf amplitude taper. Using this technique, a four-channel beam-forming network was also developed and integrated with a printed patch, lightweight phased array antenna. High-accuracy linear beam control was achieved. Null patterns of more than 30 dB were produced on boresight. The null was steered to greater than 30 deg from boresight with a linear accuracy of approximately 1 deg.
James F. Coward, Ting K. Yee, "Photonic in-phase/quadrature beam-forming network for phased array antenna applications," Optical Engineering 32(6), (1 June 1993). https://doi.org/10.1117/12.134049

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