1 January 1994 High-performance 5-μm 640 x 480 HgCdTe-on-sapphire focal plane arrays
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Optical Engineering, 33(1), (1994). doi:10.1117/12.151551
A high-performance 5-μm 640 X 480 HgCdTe/CdTe/Al2O3 infrared focal plane array (FPA) that offers full TV-compatible resolution with excellent sensitivity at temperatures below 120 K has been developed. Mean FPA D* at 95 K and background of 1014 photons/cm2 s is background-limited at ~1 x 1012 cm Hz1/2/W for the typical mean quantum efficiency of 60 to 70%. The key technology making this large, high-sensitivity device producible is the epitaxial growth of HgCdTe on a rugged CdTe-buffered sapphire substrate. Mean camera noise-equivalent temperature difference NEΔT of 13 mK has been achieved at ≤ 120 K operating temperature and 3.4- to 4.2-μm passband; this is about an order of magnitude better than similar currently available cameras, which use PtSi FPAs and require cooling to ≤ 77 K to maintain performance at low scene temperatures.
Lester J. Kozlowski, Robert B. Bailey, Scott A. Cabelli, Donald E. Cooper, Isoris S. Gergis, Annie Chi-yi Chen, William V. McLevige, Gary L. Bostrup, Kadri Vural, William E. Tennant, Philip E. Howard, "High-performance 5-μm 640 x 480 HgCdTe-on-sapphire focal plane arrays," Optical Engineering 33(1), (1 January 1994). http://dx.doi.org/10.1117/12.151551


Staring arrays

Mercury cadmium telluride

Quantum efficiency

Long wavelength infrared



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