1 November 1994 Binary and multilevel diffractive lenses with submicrometer feature sizes
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Optical Engineering, 33(11), (1994). doi:10.1117/12.179886
Abstract
Binary and multilevel diffractive lenses with submicrometer feature sizes are realized on silicon and galliumphosphide wafers using CAD methods, direct write e-beam lithography, reactive ion etching, antireflection coating, and wafer dicing. Measurements prove aberration-free imaging and maximum diftraction efficiencies of 70% for lenses with high numerical aperture (NA) of 0.5. Comparisons to other miniature and micro-optical elements are carried out with respect to laser-to-single-mode-fiber coupling and show the competitive performance of the diffractive lenses. Arrays for 18-channel parallel receiver modules are fabricated in on-axis and off-axis versions. Optical crosstalk is estimated.
Helmut Zarschizky, Albert Stemmer, Franz Mayerhofer, Guy Lefranc, Wolfgang Gramann, "Binary and multilevel diffractive lenses with submicrometer feature sizes," Optical Engineering 33(11), (1 November 1994). https://doi.org/10.1117/12.179886
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