1 July 1994 Char formation in tissue irradiated with a CO2 laser: model and simulations
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Optical Engineering, 33(7), (1994). doi:10.1117/12.172896
A model predicting temperature and damage fields in soft tissue exposed to CO2 laser radiation has been devised and previously described. It failed, in its previous version, to explain the following experimental phenomenon: under low laser irradiances, a black substance defined as char is accumulated at the bottom of the crater. We modified the basic model in the attempt to provide an explanation to the phenomenon of char formation. The basic model solves the heat equation over a 2-D grid assuming cylindrical symmetry. The terms participating in the basic heat equation are as follows: laser radiation as a source, radiation emission from the sample, conduction between neighboring grid cells, and convection terms that may be responsible for char formation under low laser irradiance. A series of assumptions regarding these convection mechanisms and the characteristics of char, in particular its absorption coefficient, are made in this work and their implications are investigated.
Miron Gerstmann, Y. Linenberg, Abraham Katzir, Solange Akselrod, "Char formation in tissue irradiated with a CO2 laser: model and simulations," Optical Engineering 33(7), (1 July 1994). https://doi.org/10.1117/12.172896

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