1 August 1994 Study of optically waveguiding structures formed in potassium titanyl phosphate by ion exchange
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Abstract
Ion-exchanged KTiOPO4 (KTP) planar optical waveguides are formed in X, Y, and Z cuts of KTP single crystals with Rb+ -> K+, Cs+ -> K+, and Ag+ -> K+ ion exchanges from nitrate melts. Waveguide modes, index profiles, and birefringence of the waveguides are studied with the integrated optics technique. Electron probe microanalysis is applied to determine an elemental composition of the ion-exchanged structures and x-ray diffractometry is used to study crystalline structure of the waveguides. The research enabled us to produce KTP optical waveguides by silver ion diffusion for the first time. In addition, the residual potassium concentrations after the ion exchange are measured and the distribution profiles of Cs and Rb atoms and positions of the atoms in the KTP lattice are characterized. A study of the unit cell deformations accompanied by birefringence measurements enabled us to clarify differences in Rb+ -> K+ and Cs+ -> K+ ion exchanges. A novel approach that would produce a KTP optical waveguide with higher index increase and better crystalline perfection than Rb+ -> K+ and Cs+ -> K+ ion exchanges is proposed.
Andrey A. Lipovskii, Andrey A. Lipovskii, Nikolai V. Nikonorov, Nikolai V. Nikonorov, Vladimir A. Lokalov, Vladimir A. Lokalov, } "Study of optically waveguiding structures formed in potassium titanyl phosphate by ion exchange," Optical Engineering 33(8), (1 August 1994). https://doi.org/10.1117/12.173570 . Submission:
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