1 July 1995 Spherical-coordinate scanning confocal laser microscope
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We present the design, construction, and characterization of a spherical-coordinate scanning, reflection-mode confocal laser microscope (SCSLM). Two system designs are presented, namely a conventional bulk optics object-scanning design and a preliminary optical-fiber-based two-axis optics/one-axis object scanning version. The bulk-optics design is characterized with respect to its optical sectioning property. Sample 3-D images acquired using the SCSLM are also presented, including a reconstruction of an ex vivo pig's cornea. The bulk optics design offers a higher light throughput, but it cannot be easily miniaturized for future integration in a microsurgical robot design. The fiber-based design has a reduced SNR but can be potentially made lightweight and small enough to be integrated as the imaging subsystem of a microsurgical robot.
Tilemachos Doukoglou, Ian Warwick Hunter, "Spherical-coordinate scanning confocal laser microscope," Optical Engineering 34(7), (1 July 1995). https://doi.org/10.1117/12.206583 . Submission:

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