1 February 1996 Full-field IC engine flow measurement using particle image velocimetry
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Particle image velocimetry (PIV) has been used to study the in-cylinder flow within a single-cylinder optical spark ignition engine. The engine had a standard four-valve pentroof cylinder head geometry, a compression ratio of 10.5:1, and was motored at a crank speed of 1000 rpm. Double exposed PIV images were recorded from a range of vertical and horizontal measurement planes within the engine’s glass cylinder. The images were interrogated using digital autocorrelation to give maps of two-dimensional instantaneous velocity. Successful PIV measurements have also been made under firing conditions in the unburned gas ahead of the flame front, with the engine being skip-fired using a propane/air mixture. The use of PIV for the characterization of realistic in-cylinder flow fields under a variety of inhospitable conditions has therefore been demonstrated. Limitations in the current technique are briefly discussed and methods for overcoming these limitations are described.
Mark Reeves, Colin P. Garner, John C. Dent, Neil A. Halliwell, "Full-field IC engine flow measurement using particle image velocimetry," Optical Engineering 35(2), (1 February 1996). https://doi.org/10.1117/1.601025 . Submission:

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