1 September 1996 Low-density diffractive optical memories for document security
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A low-density diffractive optical write-once, read multiple times memory (WORM) is demonstrated that authenticates and secures documents. Furthermore, by encoding the machine-readable optical code, information can be linked to the document. The proposed solution leads to a reliable, high security machine-readable information carrier that is fully compatible with the requirements of typical security documents, such as payment substrates, fiduciary papers, passports, and identity cards. The information carrier is a juxtaposition of diffractive structures. Data are written permanently in an optical memory; the diffractive structure is changed irreversibly through the interaction of a diffractive surface with a beam of laser light. A prototype low-density optical memory based on diffractive structures that are resilient against copying or reorigination is realized for use in securing official travel documents.
Wayne Robert Tompkin, Wayne Robert Tompkin, Rene Staub, Rene Staub, } "Low-density diffractive optical memories for document security," Optical Engineering 35(9), (1 September 1996). https://doi.org/10.1117/1.600855 . Submission:

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