1 September 1996 Proximity correction for electron beam lithography
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Optical Engineering, 35(9), (1996). doi:10.1117/1.600846
As the critical dimensions required in mask making and direct write by electron beam lithography become ever smaller, correction for proximity effects becomes increasingly important. Furthermore, the problem is beset by the fact that only a positive energy dose can be applied with an electron beam. We discuss techniques such as chopping and dose shifting, which have been proposed to meet the positivity requirement. An alternative approach is to treat proximity correction as an optimization problem. Two such methods, local area dose correction and optimization using a regularizer proportional to the informational entropy of the solution, are compared. A notable feature of the regularized proximity correction is the ability to correct for forward scattering by the generation of a ‘‘firewall’’ set back from the edge of a feature. As the forward scattering width increases, the firewall is set back farther from the feature edge. The regularized optimization algorithm is computationally time consuming using conventional techniques. However, the algorithm lends itself to a microelectronics integrated circuit coprocessor implementation, which could perform the optimization faster than even the fastest work stations. Scaling the circuit to larger number of pixels is best approached with a hybrid serial/parallel digital architecture that would correct for proximity effects over 108 pixels in about 1 h. This time can be reduced by simply adding additional coprocessors.
Christie R. Marrian, Steven Chang, Martin C. Peckerar, "Proximity correction for electron beam lithography," Optical Engineering 35(9), (1 September 1996). http://dx.doi.org/10.1117/1.600846

Point spread functions

Electron beam lithography


Analog electronics


Laser scattering

Data processing


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