A liquid crystal neuron array for carrying out optical subtraction and thresholding operations is proposed. It consists of 32 X 32 smart pixels, which can be used as artificial neurons. The device operates in parallel, that is, all the pixels are processed together simultaneously. All these functions are completed by the physics features of liquid crystal and silicon rather than by computing and controlling in a very large scale integrate circuit (VLSI). The principle of operation and the fundamental characteristics of the neuron array are described in detail.