We perform precise measurements of the x-ray transmission of the thin films comprising CCD gate structure, namely, phosphorus doped polysilicon, silicon dioxide, and silicon nitride. The x-ray transmission of these films shows large oscillations with small changes in energy in the vicinity of the following absorption edges: nitrogen K (400 eV), oxygen K (536 eV), silicon L and K (100 and 1840 eV, respectively). As a result, quantum efficiency of a CCD in the soft x-ray range deviates significantly from simple model predictions based on Henke et al. (1993) mass absorption coefficients. The measurements covered the range of energies from 60 to 3000 eV, using synchrotron beamlines at the Advanced Light Source (ALS; Berkeley), Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt BESSY (Berlin), the Synchrotron Radiation Center (SRC; University of Wisconsin-Madison). Our model of the CCD response includes near edge x-ray absorption structure and predicts a very complicated shape of the energy dependence of the quantum efficiency around silicon and oxygen absorption edges. Experimental measurements of CCD quantum efficiency relative to a calibrated detector at the BESSY synchrotron confirmed our model predictions for both frontside and backside illuminated CCDs.