Numerical analysis of the current spreading and carrier diffusion problem for four popular long wavelength vertical-cavity surfaceemitting lasers (VCSELs) structures is presented. The results show that current confinement for p-mirror VCSELs is twice as effective as the corresponding n-mirror VCSELs. We also demonstrate the design, fabrication and device characterization for long wavelength 1.3 ?m VCSELs, where oxygen-implanted current-confinement regions were formed in a GaAs/AlGaAs Bragg reflector bottom mirror, which was wafer-bonded to an AlGaInAs/InP cavity consisting of nine straincompensated quantum wells. Room temperature continuous-wave (cw) operation of 1.3 ?m VCSELs with a record low threshold current density of 1.57 kA/cm2 and a record low threshold current of 1 mA is realized. Also, a record low pulsed threshold current density of 454 A/cm2 and a threshold current of 0.83 mA at 20°C are achieved. The maximum cw and pulsed operating temperatures are 40°C and above 100°C, respectively.