1 July 1998 Increased efficiency of silicon light-emitting diodes in a standard 1.2-um silicon complementary metal oxide semiconductor technology
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Optical Engineering, 37(7), (1998). doi:10.1117/1.601792
Abstract
Scaled versions of a variety of silicon light-emitting diode elements (Si LEDs) have been realized using a standard 1.2-µm, doublepolysilicon, double-metal, n-well CMOS fabrication process. The devices operated with a n+p junction biased in the avalanche breakdown mode and were realized by using standard features of the ORBIT FORESIGHT design rules. The elements emit optical radiation in a broad band in the 450- to 850-nm range. An emitted intensity (radiant exitance) of up to 7.1 µW/cm2 (or about 8 nW per 60-µm-diam chip area) has been obtained with 5 mA of current at an operating voltage of 18.5 V. Excellent uniformity in emission intensity of better than 1% variation was obtained over areas as large as 100x500 µm. A best power conversion efficiency of 8.7x 10-8 and a quantum efficiency of 7.8x 10-7 were measured. All of these values are about one order of magnitude better than previously reported values for Si LED avalanche devices. Coupling between the elements as well as electro-optical coupling between an element and an optical fiber was realized.
Lukas Willem Snyman, Herzl Aharoni, Monuko du Plessis, Rudolph Barend Johannes Gouws, "Increased efficiency of silicon light-emitting diodes in a standard 1.2-um silicon complementary metal oxide semiconductor technology," Optical Engineering 37(7), (1 July 1998). https://doi.org/10.1117/1.601792
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