We describe the principle of a motionless interferometer based on the Talbot effect. The test object is scanned by a convergent spherical beam with variable curvatures and lateral shifts. The wavefronts are generated by a programmable off-axis Fresnel zone plate, implemented on a high resolution and high speed binary phase spatial light modulator. The aberrated field is then analyzed by passage through a fixed binary phase grating, detection by a sensor located in a fractional Talbot plane, and numerical phase retrieval from the Fourier analysis of the reconstructed intensity distribution. We describe the principle of the object multiresolution analysis. The system operation is then illustrated experimentally in a simple case exhibiting subwavelength resolution capability. Finally, we give some orders of magnitude for the dynamic range that can be expected with such a system, as well as possible extension toward very high resolution measurements.