Piezoelectric bimorphs are inexpensive and can be applied to a wide variety of purposes. We took two bimorphs to move one end of a mirror upward (downward), and two more piezoelectric bimorphs to move the other end downward (upward). The new aspect of this approach is that the angle of the mirror is much larger than that driven by the bending of each bimorph alone due to mechanical amplification. The optical scanner has a static and nonresonance mirror rotation of up to 4.6 deg. The power consumption at resonance with maximum driving voltage was calculated at 2.6 mW, which we consider to be low power consumption.
Johannes G. Smits,
"Tetramorph, a novel optical scanner using four piezoelectric bimorphs," Optical Engineering 39(11), (1 November 2000). https://doi.org/10.1117/1.1308488