Misalignment modes are combinations of rigid-body perturbations to the optical elements that make up an optical system. Comparison of misalignment modes associated with arbitrary metrology data and optical-system performance can be used to increase the sensitivity of those metrology measurements to specific optical-system performance specifications such as centroid distortion. Misalignment modes are compared using a mean squared error (MSE) metric. The MSE value can serve as a figure of merit by which metrology measurement parameters are optimized. Selection of measurable misalignment modes in the case of metrology and interesting misalignment modes in the case of optical- system performance is based on a determination of whether a mode can fit into a projection camera, given actuator-stroke and mirror-tilt bounds. As an example of this type of analysis, we find that in the case of an extreme ultraviolet lithography (EUVL) projection camera, exit-pupil wavefront measurements can be made more sensitive to centroid distortion if these measurements are collected at optimized field positions both inside and outside the ring field of view of such a camera.