Continued improvement in the performance, both brightness and diameter control, of the spot of the annotator (CRT) has made precision under-exposure unnecessary in order to maintain the proper dot-geometry on the negative. The requirement that not only the negative, but also the positive, be machine-readable has required a reconsideration of the analytical expression for the density-exposure characteristics of various films. A new model of this characteristic is presented. This model is accurate from very low densities to densities well above the point of inflection, and has been used to calculate exposure times, maximum density attainable, and dot-profiles with accuracy sufficient for annotator systems engineering purposes.
William A. Miller,
"The Effect of Sensitometric Response on the Geometric Characteristics of Photographically Recorded Digital Data," Optical Engineering 4(5), 405199 (1 July 1966). https://doi.org/10.1117/12.7971340