Three-dimensional optical memory with photorefractive materials is discussed for ultra-high density/capacity memory exceeding the classical limit of a conventional optical recording system. Bit data are recorded as highly localized refractive index variations in threedimensional volume using a focused laser beam. We show recording and reading results using a multilayered recording medium with a photoisomerization polymer and transparent films. Two-photon recording is also demonstrated. We also discuss the spherical aberration corrections using a volume holographic device, and compact confocal configuration using a semiconductor laser.