The use of the Karhunen-Loève transform (KLT) for region- based segmentation of aerial images by color and textural attributes is presented. Our aerial images are shown to be homogeneous color images within the Karhunen-Loève color representation space, which means they can be represented more easily and the region-based segmentation algorithms can be optimized. For texture analysis, the KLT is the basis of the local linear transform (LLT) and allows structural information about textures to be represented in an optimal and condensed manner. The LLT provides a system of textural analysis in the form of an adapted filter bank. We end the paper by presenting a method for merging texture and color segmentations.