1 August 2001 Coplanarity study on ball grid array packaging
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We describe a stereoscopic measurement method to study the coplanarity of solder balls on a ball grid array (BGA) packaging. The optical system consists of two long-focal-length lenses and a two- channel digital image grabber. The proposed technique uses image recognition and digital correlation, which simplify the calculation procedure. The computation requires only a few seconds to calculate the height of a few hundred balls. The technique is suitable for in situ measurement in BGA manufacturing.
Cho Jui Tay, Xiaoyuan He, Xin Kang, Chenggen Quan, Huai Min Shang, "Coplanarity study on ball grid array packaging," Optical Engineering 40(8), (1 August 2001). https://doi.org/10.1117/1.1386639

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