Assessment of camouflage, concealment, and deception (CCD) methodologies is not a trivial problem; conventionally the only method has been to carry out field trials, which are both expensive and subject to the vagaries of the weather. In recent years computing power has increased, such that there are now many research programs using synthetic environments for CCD assessments. Such an approach is attractive; the user has complete control over the environment parameters and many more scenarios can be investigated. The UK Ministry of Defence is currently developing a synthetic scene generation tool for assessing the effectiveness of air vehicle camouflage schemes. The software is sufficiently flexible to allow it to be used in a broader range of applications, including full CCD assessment. The synthetic scene simulation system (CAMEO-SIM) has been developed, as an extensible system, to provide imagery within the 0.4 to 14 ?m spectral band with as high a physical fidelity as possible. It consists of a scene design tool, an image generator, that incorporates both radiosity and ray-tracing processes, and an experimental trials tool. The scene design tool allows the user to develop a three-dimensional representation of the scenario of interest from a fixed viewpoint. Target(s) of interest can be placed anywhere within this 3-D representation and may be either static or moving. Different illumination conditions and effects of the atmosphere can be modeled together with directional reflectance effects. The user has complete control over the level of fidelity of the final image. The output from the rendering tool is a sequence of radiance maps, which may be used by sensor models or for experimental trials in which observers carry out target acquisition tasks. The software also maintains an audit trail of all data selected to generate a particular image, both in terms of material properties used and the rendering options chosen. A range of verification tests has shown that the software computes the correct values for analytically tractable scenarios. Validation tests using simple scenes have also been undertaken. More complex validation tests using observer trials are planned. The current version of CAMEO-SIM and how its images are used for camouflage assessment is described. The verification and validation tests undertaken are discussed. In addition, example images will be used to demonstrate the significance of different effects, such as spectral rendering and shadows. Planned developments of CAMEO-SIM are also outlined.