1 November 2002 Enhanced soft x-ray reflectivity of Cr/Sc multilayers by ion-assisted sputter deposition
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Optical Engineering, 41(11), (2002). doi:10.1117/1.1510750
Cr/Sc multilayers have been grown on Si substrates using dc magnetron sputtering. The multilayers are intended as condenser mirrors in a soft x-ray microscope operating at the wavelength 3.374 nm. They were designed for normal reflection of the first and second orders, with multilayer periods of 1.692 and 3.381 nm, and layer thickness ratios of 0.471 and 0.237, respectively. At-wavelength soft-x-ray reflectivity measurements were carried out using a reflectometer with a compact soft-x-ray laser-plasma source. The multilayers were irradiated during growth with Ar ions, varying both in energy (9 to 113 eV) and flux, in order to stimulate the adatom mobility and improve the interface flatness. It was found that to obtain a maximum soft x-ray reflectivity with a low flux (Cr = 0.76, Sc = 2.5) of Ar ions a rather high energy of 53 eV was required. Such energy also caused intermixing of the layers. By the use of a solenoid surrounding the substrate, the arriving ion-to-metal flux ratio could be increased 10 times and the required ion energy could be decreased. A high flux (Cr = 7.1, Sc = 23.1) of low-energy (9 eV) Ar ions yielded the most favorable growth condition, limiting the intermixing with a subsistent good surface flatness.
Fredrik Eriksson, Goeran A. Johansson, Hans M. Hertz, Jens Birch, "Enhanced soft x-ray reflectivity of Cr/Sc multilayers by ion-assisted sputter deposition," Optical Engineering 41(11), (1 November 2002). https://doi.org/10.1117/1.1510750


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