1 November 2002 Optimum even-phase four-beam multiplier
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Optical Engineering, 41(11), (2002). doi:10.1117/1.1510536
The even-phase diffractive optical element that produces four equi-intense diffraction orders with maximum efficiency is derived. A full-wave electromagnetic analysis is performed to study the behavior of the device in the resonance domain. Moreover, such full-wave analysis agrees with the scalar prediction in the limit of very large values of the grating period. Design curves for the transmission efficiency as a function of the grating period and of the incidence angle are presented. The effects of quantization of the phase profile to a discrete number of phase levels are considered. The optimization of a simple structure with only four phase levels is reported, showing good results in terms of diffraction efficiency and angular bandwidth.
Riccardo Borghi, F. Frezza, L. Pajewski, Massimo Santarsiero, Giuseppe Schettini, "Optimum even-phase four-beam multiplier," Optical Engineering 41(11), (1 November 2002). https://doi.org/10.1117/1.1510536

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