1 November 2002 Optimum even-phase four-beam multiplier
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The even-phase diffractive optical element that produces four equi-intense diffraction orders with maximum efficiency is derived. A full-wave electromagnetic analysis is performed to study the behavior of the device in the resonance domain. Moreover, such full-wave analysis agrees with the scalar prediction in the limit of very large values of the grating period. Design curves for the transmission efficiency as a function of the grating period and of the incidence angle are presented. The effects of quantization of the phase profile to a discrete number of phase levels are considered. The optimization of a simple structure with only four phase levels is reported, showing good results in terms of diffraction efficiency and angular bandwidth.
© (2002) Society of Photo-Optical Instrumentation Engineers (SPIE)
Riccardo Borghi, Riccardo Borghi, F. Frezza, F. Frezza, L. Pajewski, L. Pajewski, Massimo Santarsiero, Massimo Santarsiero, Giuseppe Schettini, Giuseppe Schettini, } "Optimum even-phase four-beam multiplier," Optical Engineering 41(11), (1 November 2002). https://doi.org/10.1117/1.1510536 . Submission:

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