1 October 2003 High performance thermo-optic switches based on low-loss acrylate polymers
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Abstract
We design and fabricate digital thermo-optic switches using low-loss photocuring fluoroacrylate polymers. We use both modeling and experimental design-rule studies to elucidate the contributions to loss and cross talk of the various important building blocks that comprise a Y-branch digital optical switch (YDOS). We present the results of these studies as well as the achieved performance for 1×2, 2×2, and 4×4 switches fabricated with these designs. Average fiber-to-fiber chip- level insertion loss (IL) values for the three designs are 1.1, 1.5, and 2.8 dB, respectively, for 1550-nm illumination. Switching times in every case are below 3 ms. Polarization-dependent loss is less than 0.1 dB at 1550 nm. Fully packaged permanently pigtailed versions of the 2×2 and 4×4 switches are also constructed. For these packaged devices, average insertion losses of 2.0 and 3.3 dB are achieved, and cross talk is maintained at a value less than –45 dB. Recent advances in materials performance have now allowed the insertion loss performance to be further improved, with chip-level IL being reduced to 1.0 and 2.2 dB for 2×2 and 4×4 switches, respectively.
© (2003) Society of Photo-Optical Instrumentation Engineers (SPIE)
Lawrence W. Shacklette, Lawrence W. Shacklette, Paul M. Ferm, Paul M. Ferm, Robert Blomquist, Robert Blomquist, MacRae Maxfield, MacRae Maxfield, Kevin Mark Killian, Kevin Mark Killian, L.S. How Kee Chun, L.S. How Kee Chun, } "High performance thermo-optic switches based on low-loss acrylate polymers," Optical Engineering 42(10), (1 October 2003). https://doi.org/10.1117/1.1601617 . Submission:
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