1 March 2003 Thin film electro-optic modulator based on single crystal of N-(4-nitrophenyl)-(L)-prolinol (NPP) grown from melt by the modified Bridgman method
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Abstract
We discuss the plate-guiding method of growing micrometer-thick single crystal films of electro-optic organic material N-(4-nitrophenyl)-(L)-prolinol. This approach has the advantages of full control over the thickness of the film and selection of a proper seed for initial crystal growth. Characterization of the electro-optic properties of the films is performed using the intensity modulation technique with a low (of the order of 10 V) alternating driving voltage. Both the fundamental and double-frequency responses are used for the characterization. The electro-optic effect is pseudolongitudinal since the configuration of the experiment is that of a longitudinal intensity modulator. The main contribution to the effect originated from the transverse component of the external electric field. By purely electro-optic means we determine the orientation of the dielectric axes and measure the half-wave voltage, the figure of merit, and electro-optic coefficients r12 and r22 to be 3.24 kV and 99.2, 461, and 154 pm/V, respectively. We also find that electro-optic coefficients r61 and r63 are two orders of magnitude less than r12 and r22.
Zhifu Liu, Sergey S. Sarkisov, Michael J. Curley, Alexander Leyderman, Charles Y. C. Lee, "Thin film electro-optic modulator based on single crystal of N-(4-nitrophenyl)-(L)-prolinol (NPP) grown from melt by the modified Bridgman method," Optical Engineering 42(3), (1 March 2003). https://doi.org/10.1117/1.1542595
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