We propose a unique approach for calibrating robot tool center point (TCP) using a noncontact sensor such as a laser displacement sensor. This approach is based on nonlinear least square optimization algorithms with geometry constraints. Experimental results show that calibration algorithm is robust and the calibration error is reduced significantly compared to that of a conventional method.
Bruce Qing Tang,
"Calibration of laser displacement sensor used by industrial robots," Optical Engineering 43(1), (1 January 2004). https://doi.org/10.1117/1.1631935