Reliable real-time surface inspection of extended surfaces with high resolution is needed in several industrial applications. With respect to an efficient application to extended technical components such as aircraft or automotive parts, the inspection system has to perform a robust measurement with a ratio between depth resolution and lateral extension of less than 10–6. This ratio is at least 1 order beyond the solutions that are offered by existing technologies. The concept of scaled topometry consists of a systematic combination of different optical measurement techniques with overlapping ranges of resolution systematically to receive characteristic surface information with the required accuracy. In such a surface inspection system, an active algorithm combines measurements on several scales of resolution and distinguishes between local fault-indicating structures with different extensions and global geometric properties. The first part of this active algorithm finds indications of critical surface areas in the data of every measurement and separates them into different categories. The second part analyzes the detected structures in the data with respect to their resolution, and decides whether a further local measurement with a higher resolution has to be performed. The third part positions the sensors and starts the refined measurements. The fourth part finally integrates the measured local dataset into the overall data mesh. We have constructed a laboratory setup capable of measuring surfaces with extensions up to 1500×1000×500 mm3 (in x, y, and z directions, respectively). Using this measurement system we are able to separate the fault-indicating structures on the surface from the global shape, and to classify the detected structures according to their extensions and characteristic shapes simultaneously. The level of fault-detection probability is applicable by input parameter control.