The internal reflection of the multimode-interference (MMI)-type device is calculated with the bidirectional beam propagation method. The calculated results indicate that the difference of the effective refractive indices between the core region and the surrounding region has a determining effect on the internal reflection of the MMI-type device. The output taper for the MMI-type combiner and splitter has a more evident effect on the internal reflection than the input taper. The internal reflection decreases with increasing the end width of the taper. For the MMI-type device with appropriate tapers, the internal reflection does not show evident degradation with the deviation of the length of the MMI region from its optimal value.
"Study on the internal reflection of the multimode-interference-type device," Optical Engineering 43(10), (1 October 2004). https://doi.org/10.1117/1.1789987