We describe the fabrication and characterization of ridge structure on Z-cut LiNbO3 substrates. Titanium strip patterns are formed using conventional photolithography and are used as a mask. The unmasked portions are then proton exchanged. As proton-exchanged LiNbO3 have a much higher etch rate than bulk LiNbO3, these portions are etched away easily by a suitable etchant, leaving a ridge structure along the masked portion. Different characterizations have been done both before and after annealing the proton exchanged areas. These ridge structures can be used for making broadband modulators.
J. C. Biswas,
S. K. Lahiri,
"Fabrication and characterization of ridge structures in LiNbO3 for optical components," Optical Engineering 43(8), (1 August 2004). https://doi.org/10.1117/1.1758270