1 January 2006 Transmission-electron-microscopy observation of dislocation networks of oxide vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers
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Optical Engineering, 45(1), 014201 (2006). doi:10.1117/1.2150232
Abstract
Oxide vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers (VCSELs) are widely used in high-speed fiber optical communications. Burn-in tests are run on oxide VCSELs to weed out defective devices, thereby fulfilling the related reliability requirements. Nevertheless, some oxide VCSELs fail in the field. Oxide VCSELs that failed in the field were examined with transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Besides cross-sectional views, plan views of the entire active region were observed. Development of a dislocation network in the active region was found in all samples, and that is the cause of the failures. The Burgers vectors of these dislocations are parallel to [101]. Although the trigger of the dislocations has not been identified, electrostatic discharge (ESD) does not cause the dislocation in our investigated devices, since no ESD-damaged region was found. Strain and/or crystal defects introduced during VCSEL fabrication are considered to be the cause.
Toru Itakura, Yoshihiko Seyama, Taichi Terada, Koshi Ueda, "Transmission-electron-microscopy observation of dislocation networks of oxide vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers," Optical Engineering 45(1), 014201 (1 January 2006). https://doi.org/10.1117/1.2150232
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