1 January 2006 Robust watermarking scheme for binary images using a slice-based large-cluster algorithm with a Hamming Code
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Optical Engineering, 45(1), 017005 (2006). doi:10.1117/1.2150810
Abstract
The problems with binary watermarking schemes are that they have only a small amount of embeddable space and are not robust enough. We develop a slice-based large-cluster algorithm (SBLCA) to construct a robust watermarking scheme for binary images. In SBLCA, a small-amount cluster selection (SACS) strategy is used to search for a feasible slice in a large-cluster flappable-pixel decision (LCFPD) method, which is used to search for the best location for concealing a secret bit from a selected slice. This method has four major advantages over the others: (a) SBLCA has a simple and effective decision function to select appropriate concealment locations, (b) SBLCA utilizes a blind watermarking scheme without the original image in the watermark extracting process, (c) SBLCA uses slice-based shuffling capability to transfer the regular image into a hash state without remembering the state before shuffling, and finally, (d) SBLCA has enough embeddable space that every 64 pixels could accommodate a secret bit of the binary image. Furthermore, empirical results on test images reveal that our approach is a robust watermarking scheme for binary images.
Wen-Yuan Chen, Chen-Chung Liu, "Robust watermarking scheme for binary images using a slice-based large-cluster algorithm with a Hamming Code," Optical Engineering 45(1), 017005 (1 January 2006). http://dx.doi.org/10.1117/1.2150810
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KEYWORDS
Digital watermarking

Binary data

Image processing

Optical engineering

Printed circuit board testing

Algorithm development

Computer programming

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