1 December 2006 Through-focus technique for grating linewidth analysis with nanometer sensitivity
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Optical Engineering, 45(12), 123602 (2006). doi:10.1117/1.2404959
We present a new algorithm for determining nano-scale feature dimensions of grating structures with a bright-field imaging tool. The algorithm is based on the intensity and focus quality of images obtained with varying amounts of defocus. Analysis of the intensity of optical images obtained at various focal positions demonstrates nanometer sensitivity with grating structures. An empirical quadratic model was developed to fit the experimental results of image intensity versus critical dimension.
Yi-Sha Ku, An-Shun Liu, Nigel Peter Smith, "Through-focus technique for grating linewidth analysis with nanometer sensitivity," Optical Engineering 45(12), 123602 (1 December 2006). https://doi.org/10.1117/1.2404959

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