1 March 2007 Uniform illumination of distant targets using a spherical light-emitting diode array
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Abstract
An array of light-emitting diodes (LEDs) assembled upon a spherical surface can produce a wider angle distribution of light than a typical array (i.e., an array assembled by mounting LEDs into a flat surface). Arranging each single LED into an optimal placement, the uniformity of the illumination of a target can be improved. We derive approximate formulas and equations for the optimum LED-to-LED angular spacing of several spherical arrangements for uniform far-field irradiance. These design conditions are compact and simple tools that incorporate an explicit dependence on the half-intensity viewing angle (half width half maximum angle) of LEDs.
Ivan Moreno, Jesus Muñoz, Rumen Ivanov, "Uniform illumination of distant targets using a spherical light-emitting diode array," Optical Engineering 46(3), 033001 (1 March 2007). https://doi.org/10.1117/1.2715562
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