1 March 2007 Invariant template matching with tangent vectors
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Optical Engineering, 46(3), 037006 (2007). doi:10.1117/1.2715984
Template matching is the search for a known object, represented by a template image, at an arbitrary location within a larger image. The local measure of match is often desired to be invariant to certain transforms, such as rotation and dilation, of the template. Although a variety of solutions have been proposed, most are designed to provide invariance to a specific transform or set of transforms, and often involve significant computational demands. When invariance to "small" transformations of the template (e.g., rotation by a small angle) is sufficient, local linear approximations to these transforms may be used to allow template matching with invariance to arbitrary transforms, without significantly increased computational requirements.
Brendt E. Wohlberg, Kevin Vixie, "Invariant template matching with tangent vectors," Optical Engineering 46(3), 037006 (1 March 2007). https://doi.org/10.1117/1.2715984

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