1 May 2007 Classification of undulated wavefront aberration in projection optics by considering its physical effects
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Optical Engineering, 46(5), 053001 (2007). doi:10.1117/1.2734995
Abstract
Although wavefront aberration in stepper projection optics has been classified with respect to its spatial frequency on the pupil, the physical meaning of this classification has not been clarified. In this paper, we show that wavefront aberration can be classified into figure aberration, random aberration, and nonconserved aberration, by taking into consideration the theoretical effect of undulated wavefront aberration with respect to its spatial frequency. We also show that the predictions of this theoretical classification coincide with both the results of numerical simulations for random aberration and the experimentally measured values of local flare size. Since our classification has a clear physical meaning, it will be valuable and applicable in developing not only stepper projection optics but also other more general optics.
Masato Shibuya, Nobuaki Watanabe, Masayuki Yamamoto, Toshihumi Fukui, Hiromi Ezaki, Tomohiro Kiire, Suezou Nakadate, "Classification of undulated wavefront aberration in projection optics by considering its physical effects," Optical Engineering 46(5), 053001 (1 May 2007). http://dx.doi.org/10.1117/1.2734995
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KEYWORDS
Wavefront aberrations

Projection systems

Wafer-level optics

Optical engineering

Reticles

Semiconducting wafers

Spatial frequencies

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