Advances in laser technology and nonlinear optical techniques can be effectively utilized for light detection and ranging (LIDAR) applications in space and atmospheric sciences to achieve better flexibility and control of the available optical power. Using such devices, one can achieve highly accurate and resolved measurement of the distribution for atmospheric scattering layers. In the present investigation, a diode-double-end-pumped high-repetition-rate, multiwavelength Nd:YAG laser is designed, fabricated, and various laser beam parameters are characterized for LIDAR applications. Nonlinear optical techniques are employed to generate higher harmonics like 532, 355, and 266 nm for various spectral studies. The studies of laser crystal parameters of Nd:YVO4 and Nd:YAG are performed using a diode-double-end-pumped configuration to extract maximum output power in the fundamental mode. The fractional thermal loading and effective stimulated emission cross section for 4F3/2 → 4I11/2 transition of 1.1 at. % doped Nd:YVO4 slab and 0.7% doped Nd:YAG rod is determined and compared using a convex-plane resonator configuration stabilized by pump-power-induced thermal lensing effect. Lower fractional thermal loading, larger effective stimulated emission cross section, and naturally polarized output enable these lasers to be more suitable for highly accurate and resolved measurement of the distribution for atmospheric scattering layers.