The main properties of acousto-optic modulators (AOMs) applied in laser technology are presented and discussed. The critical review of application of AOMs in several types of diode-pumped solid-state lasers (DPSSLs) is given. A short description of few DPSSLs developed in our group is presented. The parameters of a simple AO Q-switched Nd:YVO4 laser (peak power up to 60 kW, pulse duration 5 to 15 ns, repetition rate 10 to 100 kHz, with average power above 5 W) are satisfactory for various applications. The achieved brightness of 1017 W/m2/sr is comparable to that of the strongest technological Q-switched lasers of kilowatt average power. The main aim of paper is to present novel type of laser with acousto-optic modulation, namely, the AO Q-switched and mode locked (QML) laser. We have designed a 3.69-m-long Z-type cavity with resonance frequency matched to the rf of the AOM. As a gain medium an Nd:YVO4 crystal end-pumped by a 20-W laser diode was applied. The envelope energy of the QML pulse train was up to 130 μJ with subnanosecond mode-locked pulses of 30-μJ maximum energy.