1 August 2008 Studies on erbium diffusion in lithium niobate
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Optical Engineering, 47(8), 084601 (2008). doi:10.1117/1.2969125
Experimental work on the study of erbium (Er) diffusion and the characterisation of Er-diffused layers required to form waveguide amplifiers in LiNbO3 substrate is presented. The presence of active Er in the lattice of LiNbO3 is investigated using x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), photoluminescence (PL) measurement, and spectroscopic reflectometry. The shift of XPS peaks confirms the oxidized state of Er. The PL spectrum shows a sharp peak at 1530-nm wavelength, indicating the 4I15/24I13/2 lasing transition of Er3+. The reflectance spectrum indicates absorption at ~980 and ~1500 nm.
R. Chakraborty, Juran C. Biswas, Samir K. Lahiri, "Studies on erbium diffusion in lithium niobate," Optical Engineering 47(8), 084601 (1 August 2008). https://doi.org/10.1117/1.2969125

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