A nonlinear material-based all-optical switching mechanism is utilized here to realize the J-K and J-K master-slave (J-K M-S) flip-flops. As the flip-flops are sequential logic circuits, the present states of outputs are dependent not only on the present inputs but also on the past outputs. In our present scheme, the outputs are fed back to the former stages as well as the input stages. The output of each flip-flop and its complement are obtained simultaneously in our scheme.
Shantanu Kr. Dhar,
"Implementation of J-K and J-K master-slave flip-flops with nonlinear material in all-optical domain," Optical Engineering 48(7), 075401 (1 July 2009). https://doi.org/10.1117/1.3180866