1 September 2009 Reversible fragile watermarking scheme for three-dimensional models
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Watermarking is a very important technique for protecting the authorization of digital content, such as still images, video streams, audio streams, and 3-D models. Most fragile watermarking schemes for 3-D models are not reversible. Published reversible or irreversible fragile watermarking schemes for 3-D models have many drawbacks, such as the causality problem, not being blind, or being unable to locate changed regions. To overcome these drawbacks, a reversible fragile watermarking scheme for 3-D models in spatial domain is proposed. Principal component analysis (PCA) is employed to produce the PCA coordinate system and make the system robust against similarity transformation attacks. PCA, together with a novel interval embedding technique, provide the blind reversibility of the proposed scheme. Intervals larger than a threshold and smaller than another threshold are adopted as legitimate to avoid large distortion. Moreover, experimental results show that the proposed scheme can overcome the causality, convergence, and confusion problems; provide both tampering detection and better embedding rate and requiring a small key size.
© (2009) Society of Photo-Optical Instrumentation Engineers (SPIE)
Jen-Tse Wang, Jen-Tse Wang, Peng-Cheng Wang, Peng-Cheng Wang, Shyr-Shen Yu, Shyr-Shen Yu, } "Reversible fragile watermarking scheme for three-dimensional models," Optical Engineering 48(9), 097004 (1 September 2009). https://doi.org/10.1117/1.3223635 . Submission:


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