Original spectral features contain information pertinent to certain target spectral features. Without an efficient spectral feature extraction method, the target detection performance might be degraded. We present spectral feature extraction techniques based on the Fourier domain for use in target detection. These feature extraction methods are the Fourier magnitude (FM), Fourier phase (FP), and Fourier coefficient selection (FCS) methods. In our target detection experiments, we compared the proposed methods to the principle component analysis (PCA) and independent component analysis (ICA) methods and the original spectral features. The experiment results show that the FCS target detection accuracy is 95.75%, whereas the accuracies of the FM, FP, PCA, ICA methods, and the original spectral features are 86.76%, 36.28%, 84.51%, 74.49%, and 78.92%, respectively. The average feature extraction times of the proposed methods are 223% faster than that found for the PCA and 304% faster than the ICA methods.