A new compressed imaging system based on compressed sensing (CS) theory is proposed. One single exposure with a frame sensor can replace a sequence of measurements, which is necessary in the conventional CS imaging systems. First, the phase of the incident light is randomly modulated in the Fourier transform domain using a spatial light modulator. When the modulated light passes through the inverse Fourier transform lens, the information of the optical field will spread out across the entire modulated image. Then, a Hartmann-Shack wavefront sensor is employed to sense the intensity and phase information in the final imaging plane. The resolution of the Hartmann-Shack wavefront sensor is far less than the inherent resolution of the imaging system. Finally, a high-resolution image can be reconstructed from the image partially sampled from the Hartmann-Shack wavefront sensor at any position. The numerical experiments demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed imaging method.