Investigations focusing on devising rapid and accurate methods for developing signatures for microorganisms that could be used as biological warfare agents’ detection, identification, and discrimination have recently increased significantly. Quantum cascade laser (QCL)-based spectroscopic systems have revolutionized many areas of defense and security including this area of research. In this contribution, infrared spectroscopy detection based on QCL was used to obtain the mid-infrared (MIR) spectral signatures of Bacillus thuringiensis, Escherichia coli, and Staphylococcus epidermidis. These bacteria were used as microorganisms that simulate biothreats (biosimulants) very truthfully. The experiments were conducted in reflection mode with biosimulants deposited on various substrates including cardboard, glass, travel bags, wood, and stainless steel. Chemometrics multivariate statistical routines, such as principal component analysis regression and partial least squares coupled to discriminant analysis, were used to analyze the MIR spectra. Overall, the investigated infrared vibrational techniques were useful for detecting target microorganisms on the studied substrates, and the multivariate data analysis techniques proved to be very efficient for classifying the bacteria and discriminating them in the presence of highly IR-interfering media.